The importance of empowering women through education in reducing global poverty is an undisputed fact recognized by the United Nations (UN) in its Millenium Development Goals (MDG). The second and the third goals of the MDG are to “achieve universal primary education” and to “promote gender equality and empower women”. Nevertheless, in the latest reports by the UN it is stated that although much progress has been made it is unlikely that the goals will be achieved by 2015.
Many of the countries struggling with poverty have high rates of illiteracy among women. Uneducated women represent a waste in approximately half the human resource capital of a particular country. Gender inequality has long been a hold back to the development of very traditional countries. However, Bangladesh has almost successfully achieved the goals by eliminating gender disparity in its primary and secondary education systems.
How did a country that has high population density, limited natural resources, vulnerability to disaster and backward economic standing manage to achieve what many other relatively more developed countries have failed to? The methods used by Bangladesh to reduce inequality in education will be analyzed economically, culturally and politically. But, it will also be interesting to look at the factor of ‘globalization’ and whether it positively or negatively affects the development of women in Bangladesh. It is a general belief that globalization helps expand the cultural boundaries of people; thus, allowing more women to be freed from their ‘traditionally dictated role’ and gain access to education. But, are there certain products of globalization that do more harm than good?
நுரையீரல் காசநோய் நெடுநாள் நீடிக்கும், வெகுசீக்கிரத்தில் பரவும் வியாதியகும். இது பொதுவாக 15 வயது முதல் 35 வயதுக்குட்பட்டவர்களைத் தாக்கும். முக்கியமாக இது பலகீனமானவர்களையும் ஊட்டச்சத்து குறைந்தவர்களையும் அல்லது காசநோய் இருக்கும் நபருடன் வசிப்பவர்களை வெகு வேகமாகத் தாக்கும். ஹெச்.ஐ.வி/எய்ட்ஸ் இருக்கும் பலருக்கும் காச நோய் இருக்கும் வாய்ப்ப்பு அதிகம் இருப்பதால் ஹெ.ஐ.வி உள்ள நோயாளிகள் அனைவரும் காச நோய் பரிசோதனை செய்தல் அவசியம்.
காசநோய் குணப்படுத்தக்கூடிய நோய் ஆனாலும் ஆயிரக்கணக்கானோர் ஒவ்வொரு வருடமும் இந்த நோயால் மரணமடைகிறாகள். காச நோயை தடுக்கவும் குணப்படுத்தவும் நோயை ஆரம்பத்திலேயே கண்டுப்பிடிப்பது மிகவும் அவசியம். காச நோயின் அறிகுறிகளை கவனமாக கண்காணிக்க வேண்டும்.
காச நோய் ௮றிகுறி௧ள்:
மூன்று வாரங்களுக்கும் மேலாக இருக்கும் இருமல். அதுவும் காலையில் எழுந்தவுடன் அதிகமாக இருக்கும்.
மாலயில் லேசான காய்ச்சல்; இரவில் வேர்வை.
நெஞ்சு வலி அல்லது மேல் முதுகு வலி.
தொடர்ச்சியாக எடை குறைவு, அதிக சோர்வு.
முற்றிய, கடுமையான காச நோய் அறிகுறிகள்:
கரகரத்த குரல் (மிகவும் அபாயமான நிலை)
காச நோய் உள்ள குழந்தைகளுக்கு இருமல் அறிகுறிகள் நோய் வந்து சிறிது காலம் ஆன பின்பே தெரிய வரும்.
அதற்கு முன்பாக எடை குறைவு, அடிக்கடி ஜுரம், வெளிறிய முகம், வயிறு அல்லது கழுத்து வீக்கம் போன்ற அறிகுறிகள் இருக்கும். இவைகளை கவனமாகக் கண்காணிக்க வேண்டும்.
உங்களுக்கு காச நோய் இருக்கலாம் என்று நீங்கள் சந்தேகப்பட்டால், உடனடியாக மருத்துவரைப் பார்க்கவும். மருத்துவர் உத்தரவிடும் விதத்தில் மருந்துகளை சாப்பிடுவது மிகவும் முக்கியம். எக்காரணம் கொண்டும், உங்களுக்கு நோய் குறைவதாகத் தோன்றினாலும், மருந்துகளை நீங்களாக நிறுத்தக் கூடாது.அப்படி செய்தால், காச நோய் திரும்பவும் முற்றி மற்றவர்களுக்கும் பரவக்கூடிய கடுமையான காச நோயாக மாறி விடும். இந்த வகையில் திரும்பவும் வரும் காச நோயை குணப்படுத்துவது மிகவும் கடினம். காச நோய் முழுவதும் குணமாவதற்கு 6 மாதங்களிலிருந்து ஒரு வருடம் வரை எடுக்கும்.
ஊட்டச்சத்து மிகவும் முக்கியம்! புரதச்சத்து, உயிர்சத்து அதிகமுள்ள சக்தி தரும் உணவுகளை உண்ண வேண்டும். ஓய்வெடுத்தல் மிகவும் அவசியம். உடலின் வேறு பாகங்கள் காச நோயல் பாதிக்கப்பட்டாலும் அதற்கும் நுரையீரல் காச நோய்க்கு அளிக்கும் சிகிச்சையே அளிக்க வேண்டும்.
காச நோய் வகைகள்:
இயங்கும் காச நோய்க்கு அறிகுறிகள் உடனடியாகர் தெரிய வரும்.
அமிழ்ந்திருக்கும் காச நோயின் அறிகுறிகள் நோய் வந்து சில காலம் ஆன பின்பே தெரிய வரும்.
காச நோய் பரவக்கூடிய நோய்!!!
காச நோய் ஏன் தவிர்க்௧வேண்டும்:
முற்றிய காச நோயால் மரணம் ஏற்படக்கூடும்.
காச நோய் உங்களை மட்டுமல்லாமல் உங்களைச் சுற்றி இருக்கும் அனைவரையும் பாதிக்கும்
தும்மல் மூலம் காச நோஒய் பரவக்கூடும்.
காச நோய் நோயாளிகளுடன் வசிப்பவர்கள், அடிக்கடி சந்திப்பவர்கள் இவர்களிடையே நோய் பரவும் வாய்ப்பு கிட்டத்தட்ட 22 சதவிகிதம் அதிகமாகும்.
சிகிச்சை அளிக்கப்படாத காச நோய் நோயாளிகளின் மூலம் 10-15 நபர்களுக்கு இந்த நோய் பரவ வாய்ப்புண்டு.
உலகத்தில் உள்ள ஜனத்தொகையில் சுமார் 33 சதவிகிதம் இந்த நோயால் பாதிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது.
குழந்தைகளுக்கு தடுப்பு ஊசி போடுவதன் மூலம் இந்த நோயைத் தடுக்கலாம். ஆனால் பெரியவர்களுக்குத் தடுப்பு ஊசியால் உபயோகமில்லை.
காச நோய் உள்ளவர்களுடன் தொடர்பு கொண்டால், நோய்க்கிருமி கட்டுப்படுத்தி மருந்துகள்(ஆன்டி பயாடிக்ஸ்) மூலம் இந்த நோய் வருவதைத் தவிர்க்கலாம்.
காச நோய் நுரையயீரலுக்கு வெளியேயும் தாக்கலாம். நுரையீரல் காச நோயை உண்டாக்கும் கிருமிகளே உடலின் பல்வேறு உறுப்புகளையும் தாக்கும் வாய்ப்பு இருக்கிறது. அவ்வாறு தாக்கும் கிருமிகளால் உடலில் கட்டி, கொப்புளம்,வீக்கம், பரு ஆகியவை உண்டாக வாய்ப்புண்டு.
கல்லீரல் வீக்கம் ஹெபடைடிஸ் எனப்படும் கிருமிகளால் உண்டக்கப்படுகிறது.இந்தக் கிருமிகளில் A,B,C,E எனப் பல வகைகள் உண்டு.கலப்பட உணவு, குடிநீர் எவற்றில் வசிக்கும் கிருமிகளலும் இந்த நோய் உண்டகலாம்.பொதுவாக இந்த நோய் இருப்பவர்களுக்கு தோலும் கண்களும் மஞ்சள் நிறமாக இருக்கும். பொதுவாக மஞ்சள் காமாலை நோய் எனப்படும்.குடி, போதைப் பொருட்கள் இவைகளாலும் கல்லீரல் சிதைவு எற்படலாம்.அதிக வலி கொல்லி மருந்துகளாலும் இந்த நோய் ஏற்பட வாய்ப்புண்டு.
In India we put in so much effort trying to help each other and the villagers. However, there is one more person in this picture: Subadra Aunty. She took care of us and was basically our mom in a foreign nation. From meals to transportation and health she was there. Although she did not directly affect the work that we did in the village, she was the much needed support system who ensured our maximum performance.
I just wanted to say a few things about this amazing person who did SO MUCH for us.
and who made the most amazing coffee ever. Subadra Shots anyone?
I was just thinking about my previous trip to India and the thing that always bugs me the most when trying to come up with solutions to people's problems is: am I imposing my views and beliefs on others? This is a very cliched question in the field of social work but a crucial one indeed. This time I was just thinking about how our standards of hygiene may or may not be applicable in India. We always think that there is only one standard for hygiene but maybe there is.
Shoes: Shoes is a must. No one can or should leave their houses without shoes. Thats what we think here but in India kids walk around everywhere without shoes. Yet, there are hardly any cases of disease outbreaks related to shoes. (well I am sure there are in certain places but its really not a pressing issue)
Food hygiene: when foreigners go to India and eat food from random restaurants its almost a given that they fall sick. Yet the locals do not. They have an immune system that has adapted over generations to suit their needs. So, if we go to these villages and give them clean water are we disrupting this much needed immunity?
These are some of the random thoughts that I had. We always say that villages in India lack sanitation. But shouldnt we also wonder if maybe we are too clean?
Just want to wish everyone Happy THANKSGIVING!!! Its the time of the year that everyone should say thanks to all that they are grateful for (technically this should be everyday). Anyway, have a great time with the family and think of all those people out there who we can help in some way or another.
I am also really thankful to the amazing people I have met through Project RISHI mainly for being AWESOME friends and helping me get so adjusted to living here on another continent!!! And for being inspiring to enough to care about people a million miles away!
The EV Thanksgiving challenge is a really amazing idea. Initially my daily visits to the EV site were driven by the motivation to gain funding for the various projects we have planned. However, this has CHANGED. Although I know that there are many non profit organizations in the world attempting to improve some aspect of life, I have never really had the chance to interact with these many members from sooo many different projects. EV's challenge introduced me to the possibility of meeting (at least in the virtual world) all these people and now I am addicted to reading various blogs and comments.
The different blogs and comments posted sometimes are very similar to the projects that we are trying to implement or they share similar problems. Being able to see how different organizations have handled and implemented different projects is a crucial bit of knowledge to ensure the success of our projects.
Within the organization I am a part of, the EV challenge has given us another reason to communicate more among members and learn more about one another.
These are a bunch of exciting new projects that we can consider working on (based on the discussion at today's initiatives committee meeting). These are projects that have been brought up after considering the needs and the wants of the village people in Vadamanapakkam.
1) Spoken English Classes: this was required mainly by the high school graduate kids who are planning on applying for jobs and higher education. Currently, the school system provides english classes that focus on the grammar aspects. However, the children are not able to learn how to speak english properly because they are not able to use it outside of school.
2) Computer classes: Introduce the school kids to perhaps the most important technological item present today. This will perhaps give them access to better knowledge sources and motivate them to pursue education.
3) Nutrition project: to help kids gain access to proper nutrition perhaps by the implementation of a proper milk powder program.
4) Mosquito problems
5) Water sanitation: this is including the proper use and protection of the wells in the village. Also, the kids seems to need proper instruction regarding the negative effects of "pee-ing and spitting in the well".
It is important for a volunteer to maintain constant contact with the people in the location at which they are volunteering. This is something that we have been doing either through phone conversations or by annual visits. Such conversations are often very exciting because we get to hear first hand how much of an impact we have had in their lives and what else we can do. Being able to listen to their voices and read their tones and expressions are really fun especially when they are positive (you know that you are doing something right).
However, many of these villagers are still trapped in a very patriarchal and hierarchical (age and position) view of life. I find it rather hard to be able to talk to elder men mainly and relate to them what we need from them or want them to do. It sometimes feels like they are unwilling to take any form of advice from a girl 30-40 years younger than them who has very limited first hand knowledge of their lives.
However, I realize that there is no room for being intimidated when trying to work on these projects. It seems crucial that I learn to communicate with these people in a way that makes them feel in control and respected but still manage to get our message across. This is something that I am recently learning through our various phone calls to India. If anyone has any advice, I am all ears!!!
This blog focuses on two issues of poverty: water distribution and people displacement. The unnecessary building of dams in India has led to various ill effects ranging from people losing their homes to diseases and ultimately poverty.
Roy seems to be against big “D” development like Moyo and Easterly. She criticizes the World Bank’s eagerness fund the dam building projects in India. She mentions that India pays more in interests than the amount of aid it receives. She also points out that many first world countries channel funds to build dams in India while they are tearing them down in their own countries. Also, it is stated that many first world nations give aid while expecting some sort of return in the form of trade agreements etc. This seems to be a rather direct critic towards the “aid” given by the developed nations.
More importantly she brings to light the systemic errors occurring within the Indian State. From the reading it seems that the State is disconnected from the poor and this is a breach in democracy. Although there are many failed dam projects the government insists on building more dams. Roy attributes this to the fact that those in power gain more power by building these dams and so they refuse to except that dams cause more harm than good. But is this the only reason? It seems rather ridiculous that any country would do something repeatedly when it is proven to be bad. Maybe the Indian state is still believes that infrastructural development is the first step to poverty alleviation. Sachs said that aid should be given to the poor nations so that they can get on the ladder of development (one of the main ways to do this is by infrastructural development-first phase of the World Bank). Is it possible that India is somehow so caught up in infrastructural development that it is unable to see any other ways of relieving poverty?
It also doesn’t help that the Indian state suffers from corruption. The statement at the end of the reading; “nobody builds Big Dams to provide drinking water to rural people. Nobody can afford to”, seems to indicate that there may be no hope for the poor unless there is a major reform in the current system of administration. This statement appeals to me the most because it indicates that even in a nation where the people decide their leaders, the people themselves are deprived of one of the basic needs. I guess this once again brings us to the question of whether true democracy can ever be implemented. Are the poor condemned to suffer simply because those who can help refuse to do so without benefitting themselves?
On a random note, why is India struggling with all this issues of poverty when it has one of the fastest developing economies in the world? Does this mean that free market doesn’t get rid of poverty either?
This week’s reading focuses on the urbanization process that has been occurring rapidly in the last century. Davis in “Planet of Slums” focuses on the causative and effects of slums. But before going into that, it is interesting to see how Davis talks about urbanization. He says that “urbanization must be conceptualized as structural transformation along, and intensified interaction between, every point of an urban-rural continuum.” So then how do we determine where the line between urban and rural is? There are various standards and statistics Davis mentions that allows the classification of different cities (population size) but just because an area has a high population density does not necessarily mean that it is “urban”. But this thought only holds if urbanization is viewed to be a subset of development or industrialization. But, Davis mentions that this does not have to be true. This is indicated by the existence of urban migration into a city that currently faces economic depression and no new development.
Davis also talks about slums in his paper. Slums have come into existence due to rapid immigration of the rural population into the cities that are not economically strong enough to sustain the population size. He mentions various reasons but one of biggest reasons he mentions has to do with the Structural Adjustment Programs of the IMF. These SAP and other IMF programs of “de-peasantization” have forced the rural farmers to come into cities although the cities cannot sustain them. This forces them into slums. Once again we see a critique of the “big D” development where Davis states that SAP kicks out the ladder of development. This could once again be a result of the first world viewing urbanization and development to be the same thing. And the existence of slums indicates that forced urbanization is not necessarily the solution to poverty. For example, the villagers who were affected by the Sardar Sarovar dam were forced to move into cities but they end up living in slums. Although their rural villages lacked the technological advancements of the city, the people were still able to sustain themselves with natural resources. Forcing them into the city (urbanization) made their lives a lot worse and put them in more poverty.
This in a way ties to Fernandes’ “right to habitation” and “right to participation”. It is often said that everyone has the right to live in a city however the more important right seems to be the right to allow everyone to be able to work and develop with the city. It is the second right that will allow the reduction of poverty. Most of the urbanization work right now focuses solely on moving people into the cities but it is more important to ensure that these people who are brought in a prepared with adequate skills for them to live in the city. They should be allowed to participate in the city so that they are not pushed out into the periphery to live in the slums.
Davis finally also brings up the gender inequality of poverty and it seems true that women seem to be affected more. Professor Isha Ray also did mention in class how the women were not given the right to get irrigation water simply because the men owned the land. If this occurs in the rural area, it must be worse in the cities simply because these women who live in slums more probably have had less education or work experience compared to the men. This forces them into random odd jobs that give them low pay and sometimes make them a subject of violence.
Julie Cliff indicates that the problem of public health stems from poverty. The Konzo disease has nothing to do with an uncontrollable virus or genetic disorder. Instead, it is a problem that comes from the choice that the rural poor in Mozambique face: to starve to death or to contract Konzo. On the local level, the solution to this problem is to use methods to reduce the thiocyanate level in the cassava that is mostly consumed during the draughts.The methods suggested are grating and the dampening of the cassava flour before consumption. Nonetheless, people have not adopted the use of these methods. Could this related back to Easterly by saying that the people do not appreciate the graters given to them because they did not obtain it through the market? But, how can we expect people who are facing starvation to spend money to buy graters? Also, the method of dampening the cassava flour is yet to be carried out by the villagers probably because of their traditional belief that the cassava would lose its strength. In the foreword it is mentioned that the Guatemalan government integrated Mayan medicine into the regular health care structure. Perhaps the villagers in Mozambique similarly require a solution that includes local beliefs. However, can this be done for all problems?
Konzo is also said to be caused by the national economy’s ignorance of the rural poor under both the socialist and the free market systems. The collapse of rural trade made because of the governments focus on state farms led to a rise in rural poverty. With the free market system, all agricultural surpluses had been sold to Malawi leaving the Mozambique with no backup during the drought. Also, the structural adjustment programs have removed any form of state protection for rural farmers. This is similar to the coffee farmers in Ethiopia where the SAP ban on subsidies negatively affect the farmers. In Ethiopia subsidy ban led to poverty but in Mozambique poverty combined with the draught and the inability to get subsidies for better crops have caused Konzo. This seems to indicate a system where both the socialist and the free market based economy have failed to do anything for the poor. Then where is the solution?
Similar to how the farmers were forced to eat toxic cassava, Scheper-Hughes’ article indicates how people of the third world are forced to sell organs. This “force” comes from the existence of an unregulated free market that uses body parts as commodities. There seems to be nothing illegal about this because the poor are willingly selling organs that a rich person needs. However, the ethical issue comes in when it is determined that the poor are not properly educated about the risks they face from sell their organs. This is similar to the poverty business video we watched. This time the poor are not exploited for financial gain rather for more valuable organs. This is an example of the exploitation of the poor by the wealthy through the use of the free market (although it is termed illegal). However, the risk involved in this trade is huge. The risk is health.
Globalization has been taking place in so many forms, one of which involves the mobilization of money. The money that crosses over the equator is often called... Foreign Aid. It has almost become common knowledge that massive amounts of money have been given by the global north to the global south for one thing: the alleviation of poverty and the development of nations... (oh thats two things then...)
Anyway... the thing to note is that often these countries receiving aid have not been developing at the rate that they should be with all the aid they are receiving (assuming no corruption). So what is the cause? A possible answer: DEPENDENCY.
Moving back to our projects in India, the main question is how do we create systems through which after some point in the time the villagers themselves can use it to help themselves without us (physically, financially or mentally)?? It is the goal of our club to create self-sufficient systems. We do not want them to be dependent on us completely. We are there to help them help themselves. This is being done through the health workers program which gets the assistance of prominent village women to go to each home in the village and guide the family of issues of health and sanitation mainly.
But what about the clinic? How do we operate a free clinic without giving it constant financial assistance? Is there a way for us to make the clinic sustain itself without depending on us completely? Charging the villagers a minimal amount to see the doctor would seem like the start of a possible solution but will this cause villagers to not want to get proper treatment?
The clinic is working well now... but.... what about later???
During the trip to India in the summer of 2009, we realized that most of the kids were often barefooted, walking on unpaved and dirty streets to school everyday. It is often assumed to be common knowledge that walking without shoes is harmful and can cause a lot of unwanted diseases. This simple solution to this is; use shoes. But what is simple to us may be very difficult for the families that survive on minimal daily wages. Our solution: provide all school kids with free shoes.
The problem: How do we get kids who have walked around so freely without the hindrance of shoes to use these shoes? Furthermore, how do we make them use shoes with socks? South India is known for its hot and humid climate, so I definitely would understand why shoes are not a preferred at all. However, it is a necessity. So, this brings us to the questions mentioned above.
The solution: We have discussed the option of making shoes a compulsory part of the dress code. Hopefully, the enforcement by the school and parents would make the kids more willing to use their shoes. We are also making posters that will educate the kids and their parents about the importance of wearing shoes at all time when they are outside the cleanliness of their homes.
The question: Will these techniques work for a long term? Will the kids continue wearing their shoes even after we leave the village and will they make it a part of their habitual behavior?
This is a project we are working on now. It is a project that really interests me and I believe will be very beneficial for the kids in the village. If anyone else have had similar experiences, it would be great to hear from you!!!
I went on this trip full of confidence thinking that in the ten days we were going to be there we would bring about instantaneous changes in the lives of the villagers. But that was not the way things happened. Day after day, we would talk to the villagers, trying to get a thorough understanding of their needs and problems. At first, it was frustrating that I was not able to help the people out immediately. It was frustrating knowing that had they been in another country such as America, they would not be going through some of the health problems they were facing.
After reflecting on this feeling, I realized that trying to give the people an instant cure or using my own value systems to judge them is not right. Although we spoke the same language, I realized that I didn’t completely understand them. In Vadamanapakkam, I saw children running around barefoot and old men going back to work daily although it was the very work they did that caused their physical problems. They knew the consequences of their actions but they still did what they did. Why? I don’t really know why. All I do know is that it isan unchangeable part of their lives. It isnot fair to judge them with my foreign expectations or to force them to change their lives without providing them with an appropriate substitute.
So then, what do the villagers need most from us? I feel that it’s nothing fancy, just the basic needs: the simple joy of having clean water, proper drainage infrastructure, nutritious milk powder and new notebooks. Also, a better awareness of basic hygiene needs to be cultivated among them, especially the children, through education and the health worker program that we are setting up. I know this can be done and I am eager to start working on it.
A touch of humanity; to me this the best way to describe the adventures we had in India this summer. Aside from being able to contribute to society, I got the chance to get to know different people, see a new world, live a different lifestyle and explore a whole new side of my own culture. This trip has touched something within me and I hope that I have made at least a small difference in someone else there, even if it was just an extra smile.